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He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls.In 1421, the Yongle Emperor persisted in relocating the capital to Beijing, however he had to withdraw his order before his death. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.Besides the city wall, other famous Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it.As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections.
The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored. especially strong in the chemical sciences, and also strong in many other areas, for instance, it hosts the nation's best computer software laboratory and wireless communication laboratory in IT field, as well as the state key laboratory of pharmaceutical biotechnology. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index.It's the first time that the capital of the nation moved to southern part.During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries.Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain.Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum.The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.The first emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city Yingtian, rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in 1368.Although Beijing was the de facto capital after that, Nanjing remained the official one of the Ming Empire until 1441, when Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the words "行在" ("provisional") on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained.Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limit power before 1644.